ISSUE 12, January 2005

Editorial
Kitchener of Khartoum: Mason extraordinary
Travel: Where east meets west
Veteran Honoured: Old soldier remembered
Royal Masonic Family: The Six Masonic Sons of George III, Part 1
Supreme Grand Chapter: Speech of the Pro First Grand Principal and, Report of the Committee of General Purposes
  Quarterly Communication: Address of the Pro Grand Master and, Report of the Board of General Purposes
Metropolitan Grand Lodge of London: London's first consecration
Soccer: Man in the Middle
Wales: Joseph Parry - flawed genius?
Library & Museum: Donations gather pace
Education: Dates for your diary and, Planning a 'white table' and, Looking to the future and, Time marches on
Grand Charity: General meeting and non-Masonic grant list
Masonic Charities: Reports from the four main charities
Letters, Book reviews, Gardening

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Above
1787 engraving of the Duke of York
    Frederick Augustus, Duke of York
Born in 1763 and created Bishop of Osnabruck in Hanover at the age of seven months, Frederick was George III's favourite son. Initially educated with his older brother George, Frederick was a bright student and was later sent to Prussia to train for a military career.
     In 1784 he married Princess Frederica of Prussia and was created Duke of York. Frederick and the Prince of Wales were firm friends, often drinking and womanising together, and the Duke of York became a Mason in the same year as his older brother. He was initiated in Britannic Lodge (now No. 33), which also met at the Star and Garter and was made a Past Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge soon after. Naturally, he joined his brother's Lodge.
     In 1789 he fought a duel with Lieutenant-Colonel Lennox, who had insulted the Prince of Wales. The duel was a bit of a Masonic affair, the Earl of Moira was Frederick's second and Lennox, who survived the duel after the Prince refused to shoot, later went on to become Duke of Richmond and Provincial Grand Master of Sussex. For a number of years the Prince of Wales's Lodge held an annual celebration to honour Frederick's courage.
     Like his older brother, Frederick's life was not short of scandal. His military career was chequered. In 1793, revolutionary France had invaded Holland and Frederick was placed in command of the British forces by his father. His campaign, which was hindered by bad advice from older generals, could have defeated France before the rise of Napoleon, but his strategy of constant repositioning of troops led to Frederick becoming the subject of the nursery rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York" after a second failed campaign in 1798.
     Frederick did, however, as Commander-in-Chief, transform the organisation of the army, improve the training of soldiers, especially officers, with the establishment of military academies, and insist on better equipment and supplies for the men in the field.
     Unfortunately, his military career came to an end in 1809, after one of his mistresses, Mrs Clarke, accused him of selling commissions. Although cleared by a parliamentary enquiry, he resigned his position. On his death in 1827, grateful soldiers raised the funds to build a statue of him, which still stands today at Carlton Terrace in London.


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